# Count of subarrays whose product is equal to difference of two different numbers

Given a **non-negative array a**, the task is to find the count of subarrays whose product of elements can be represented as the difference of two different numbers. **Examples:**

Input:arr = {2, 5, 6}Output:2Explanation:

Product of elements of subarray {5} can be represented as 3^{2}– 2^{2}is equal to 5

Product of elements of subarray {2, 5, 6} can be represented as 8^{2}– 2^{2}is equal to 60

Hence, there are two subarrays which can be represented.Input:arr = {1, 2, 3}Output:2

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**Naive Approach:**

The naive solution to the above-mentioned question is to compute all the possible subarray from the given array. Then we have to compute the product of each subarray. But this method is not so efficient and is time-consuming.**Efficient approach:**

A common observation of the efficient approach to the above problem is that a number which is divisible by 2 and not by 4 gives remainder 2 when divided by 4. Hence, all the numbers can be represented as a product of two different numbers except the numbers which give the remainder 2 when done modulo with 4. Now to solve the problem we take a pair of vector and store elements along with the position of the next element which is divisible by 2. After that traverse the array and look for the necessary conditions given below:

- If an odd number is encountered then this number forms all subarrays unless a number occurs which is divisible by 2. Now, this number also can form subarrays when another number occurs which is divisible by 2. Both of these are stored in pair type vector.
- If a number is encountered which is divisible by 4 then this number can form all subarrays.
- If a number occurs which is only divisible by 2 then this number cannot form subarray unless another number occurs which is a multiple of 2.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

## C++

`// C++ program to Find count of` `// Subarrays whose product can be` `// represented as the difference between` `// two different numbers` `#include <bits/stdc++.h>` `using` `namespace` `std;` `// Function to print number of subarrays` `void` `numberOfSubarrays(` `int` `arr[], ` `int` `n)` `{` ` ` `vector<pair<` `int` `, ` `int` `> > next(n);` ` ` `vector<pair<` `int` `, ` `int` `> > next_to_next(n);` ` ` `int` `f = -1;` ` ` `int` `s = -1;` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--) {` ` ` `next[i].first = arr[i];` ` ` `next_to_next[i].first = arr[i];` ` ` `// check if number is divisible by 2` ` ` `if` `(arr[i] % 2 == 0) {` ` ` `s = f;` ` ` `f = i;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Store the position` ` ` `// of the next element` ` ` `next[i].second = f;` ` ` `// Store the position of` ` ` `// next to next element` ` ` `// which is multiple of 2` ` ` `next_to_next[i].second = s;` ` ` `}` ` ` `int` `total = 0;` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 0; i < n; i++) {` ` ` `int` `calculate;` ` ` `// Check if the element is divisible` ` ` `// is divisible by 4` ` ` `if` `(next[i].first % 4 == 0) {` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Check if current element` ` ` `// is an odd number` ` ` `else` `if` `(next[i].first & 1 == 1) {` ` ` `if` `(next[i].second == -1) {` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `}` ` ` `else` `{` ` ` `// check if after the current element` ` ` `// only 1 element exist which is a` ` ` `// multiple of only 2 but not 4` ` ` `if` `(next_to_next[i].second == -1` ` ` `&& next[next[i].second].first % 4 != 0)` ` ` `{` ` ` `calculate = next[i].second - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Check if after the current element an element exist` ` ` `// which is multiple of only 2 and not 4 and after that` ` ` `// an element also exist which is multiple of 2` ` ` `else` `if` `(next_to_next[i].second != -1` ` ` `&& next[next[i].second].first % 4 != 0) {` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `total -= next_to_next[i].second - next[i].second;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// All subarrays can be formed by current element` ` ` `else` `{` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total = total + calculate;` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Condition for an even number` ` ` `else` `{` ` ` `// Check if next element does not` ` ` `// exist which is multiple of 2` ` ` `if` `(next_to_next[i].second == -1)` ` ` `total = total;` ` ` `// Check if next element exist` ` ` `// which is multiple of 2` ` ` `else` `{` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `total = total - next_to_next[i].second + i;` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Print the output` ` ` `cout << total << ` `"\n"` `;` `}` `// Driver Code` `int` `main()` `{` ` ` `// array initialisation` ` ` `int` `arr[] = { 2, 5, 6 };` ` ` `int` `size = ` `sizeof` `(arr) / ` `sizeof` `(arr[0]);` ` ` `numberOfSubarrays(arr, size);` ` ` `return` `0;` `}` |

## Java

`// Java program to find count of` `// subarrays whose product can be` `// represented as the difference` `// between two different numbers` `import` `java.io.*;` `import` `java.util.*;` `class` `GFG{` `// Function to print number of subarrays` `static` `void` `numberOfSubarrays(` `int` `arr[], ` `int` `n)` `{` ` ` `int` `[][] next = ` `new` `int` `[n][` `2` `];` ` ` `int` `[][] next_to_next = ` `new` `int` `[n][` `2` `];` ` ` `int` `f = -` `1` `;` ` ` `int` `s = -` `1` `;` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = n - ` `1` `; i >= ` `0` `; i--)` ` ` `{` ` ` `next[i][` `0` `] = arr[i];` ` ` `next_to_next[i][` `0` `] = arr[i];` ` ` `// Check if number is divisible by 2` ` ` `if` `(arr[i] % ` `2` `== ` `0` `)` ` ` `{` ` ` `s = f;` ` ` `f = i;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Store the position` ` ` `// of the next element` ` ` `next[i][` `1` `] = f;` ` ` `// Store the position of` ` ` `// next to next element` ` ` `// which is multiple of 2` ` ` `next_to_next[i][` `1` `] = s;` ` ` `}` ` ` `int` `total = ` `0` `;` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = ` `0` `; i < n; i++)` ` ` `{` ` ` `int` `calculate;` ` ` `// Check if the element is divisible` ` ` `// is divisible by 4` ` ` `if` `(next[i][` `0` `] % ` `4` `== ` `0` `)` ` ` `{` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Check if current element` ` ` `// is an odd number` ` ` `else` `if` `((next[i][` `0` `] & ` `1` `) == ` `1` `)` ` ` `{` ` ` `if` `(next[i][` `1` `] == -` `1` `)` ` ` `{` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `}` ` ` `else` ` ` `{` ` ` `// Check if after the current element` ` ` `// only 1 element exist which is a` ` ` `// multiple of only 2 but not 4` ` ` `if` `(next_to_next[i][` `1` `] == -` `1` `&&` ` ` `next[next[i][` `1` `]][` `0` `] % ` `4` `!= ` `0` `)` ` ` `{` ` ` `calculate = next[i][` `1` `] - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Check if after the current element` ` ` `// an element exist which is multiple` ` ` `// of only 2 and not 4 and after that` ` ` `// an element also exist which is` ` ` `// multiple of 2` ` ` `else` `if` `(next_to_next[i][` `1` `] != -` `1` `&&` ` ` `next[next[i][` `1` `]][` `0` `] % ` `4` `!= ` `0` `)` ` ` `{` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `total -= next_to_next[i][` `1` `] -` ` ` `next[i][` `1` `];` ` ` `}` ` ` `// All subarrays can be formed` ` ` `// by current element` ` ` `else` ` ` `{` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total = total + calculate;` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Condition for an even number` ` ` `else` ` ` `{` ` ` ` ` `// Check if next element does not` ` ` `// exist which is multiple of 2` ` ` `if` `(next_to_next[i][` `1` `] == -` `1` `)` ` ` `total = total;` ` ` `// Check if next element exist` ` ` `// which is multiple of 2` ` ` `else` ` ` `{` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `total = total - next_to_next[i][` `1` `] + i;` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Print the output` ` ` `System.out.println(total);` `}` `// Driver Code` `public` `static` `void` `main(String args[])` `{` ` ` ` ` `// Array initialisation` ` ` `int` `arr[] = { ` `2` `, ` `5` `, ` `6` `};` ` ` `int` `size = arr.length;` ` ` `numberOfSubarrays(arr, size);` `}` `}` `// This code is contributed by offbeat` |

## Python3

`# Python program to find count of` `# subarrays whose product can be` `# represented as the difference` `# between two different numbers` `# Function to print number of subarrays` `def` `numberOfSubarrays(arr, n):` ` ` `Next` `=` `[[` `0` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(` `2` `)] ` `for` `j ` `in` `range` `(n)]` ` ` `next_to_next ` `=` `[[` `0` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(` `2` `)] ` `for` `j ` `in` `range` `(n)]` ` ` `f ` `=` `-` `1` ` ` `s ` `=` `-` `1` ` ` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(n ` `-` `1` `, ` `-` `1` `, ` `-` `1` `) :` ` ` ` ` `Next` `[i][` `0` `] ` `=` `arr[i]` ` ` `next_to_next[i][` `0` `] ` `=` `arr[i]` ` ` `# Check if number is divisible by 2` ` ` `if` `(arr[i] ` `%` `2` `=` `=` `0` `) :` ` ` ` ` `s ` `=` `f` ` ` `f ` `=` `i` ` ` `# Store the position` ` ` `# of the next element` ` ` `Next` `[i][` `1` `] ` `=` `f` ` ` `# Store the position of` ` ` `# next to next element` ` ` `# which is multiple of 2` ` ` `next_to_next[i][` `1` `] ` `=` `s` ` ` `total ` `=` `0` ` ` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(n) :` ` ` `calculate ` `=` `0` ` ` `# Check if the element is divisible` ` ` `# is divisible by 4` ` ` `if` `(` `Next` `[i][` `0` `] ` `%` `4` `=` `=` `0` `) :` ` ` ` ` `calculate ` `=` `n ` `-` `i` ` ` `total ` `+` `=` `calculate` ` ` `# Check if current element` ` ` `# is an odd number` ` ` `elif` `((` `Next` `[i][` `0` `] & ` `1` `) ` `=` `=` `1` `) :` ` ` ` ` `if` `(` `Next` `[i][` `1` `] ` `=` `=` `-` `1` `) :` ` ` ` ` `calculate ` `=` `n ` `-` `i` ` ` `total ` `+` `=` `calculate` ` ` `else` `:` ` ` ` ` `# Check if after the current element` ` ` `# only 1 element exist which is a` ` ` `# multiple of only 2 but not 4` ` ` `if` `(next_to_next[i][` `1` `] ` `=` `=` `-` `1` `and` `Next` `[` `Next` `[i][` `1` `]][` `0` `] ` `%` `4` `!` `=` `0` `) :` ` ` ` ` `calculate ` `=` `Next` `[i][` `1` `] ` `-` `i` ` ` `total ` `+` `=` `calculate` ` ` `# Check if after the current element` ` ` `# an element exist which is multiple` ` ` `# of only 2 and not 4 and after that` ` ` `# an element also exist which is` ` ` `# multiple of 2` ` ` `elif` `(next_to_next[i][` `1` `] !` `=` `-` `1` `and` `Next` `[` `Next` `[i][` `1` `]][` `0` `] ` `%` `4` `!` `=` `0` `) :` ` ` ` ` `calculate ` `=` `n ` `-` `i` ` ` `total ` `+` `=` `calculate` ` ` `total ` `-` `=` `next_to_next[i][` `1` `] ` `-` `Next` `[i][` `1` `]` ` ` `# All subarrays can be formed` ` ` `# by current element` ` ` `else` `:` ` ` ` ` `calculate ` `=` `n ` `-` `i` ` ` `total ` `=` `total ` `+` `calculate` ` ` `# Condition for an even number` ` ` `else` `:` ` ` ` ` `# Check if next element does not` ` ` `# exist which is multiple of 2` ` ` `if` `(next_to_next[i][` `1` `] ` `=` `=` `-` `1` `) :` ` ` `total ` `=` `total` ` ` `# Check if next element exist` ` ` `# which is multiple of 2` ` ` `else` `:` ` ` `calculate ` `=` `n ` `-` `i` ` ` `total ` `+` `=` `calculate` ` ` `total ` `=` `total ` `-` `next_to_next[i][` `1` `] ` `+` `i` ` ` `# Print the output` ` ` `print` `(total)` `# Array initialisation` `arr ` `=` `[ ` `2` `, ` `5` `, ` `6` `]` `size ` `=` `len` `(arr)` `numberOfSubarrays(arr, size)` `# This code is contributed by divyesh072019` |

## C#

`// C# program to find count of ` `// subarrays whose product can be ` `// represented as the difference ` `// between two different numbers ` `using` `System;` `class` `GFG{` ` ` `// Function to print number` `// of subarrays ` `static` `void` `numberOfSubarrays(` `int` `[] arr,` ` ` `int` `n) ` `{ ` ` ` `int` `[,] next = ` `new` `int` `[n, 2]; ` ` ` `int` `[,] next_to_next = ` `new` `int` `[n, 2];` ` ` `int` `f = -1; ` ` ` `int` `s = -1; ` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--)` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `next[i, 0] = arr[i]; ` ` ` `next_to_next[i, 0] = arr[i]; ` ` ` `// Check if number is` ` ` `// divisible by 2 ` ` ` `if` `(arr[i] % 2 == 0)` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `s = f; ` ` ` `f = i; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `// Store the position ` ` ` `// of the next element ` ` ` `next[i, 1] = f; ` ` ` `// Store the position of ` ` ` `// next to next element ` ` ` `// which is multiple of 2 ` ` ` `next_to_next[i, 1] = s; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `int` `total = 0; ` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `int` `calculate; ` ` ` `// Check if the element is` ` ` `// divisible is divisible by 4 ` ` ` `if` `(next[i, 0] % 4 == 0) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `calculate = n - i; ` ` ` `total += calculate; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `// Check if current element ` ` ` `// is an odd number ` ` ` `else` `if` `((next[i, 0] & 1) == 1)` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `if` `(next[i, 1] == -1) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `calculate = n - i; ` ` ` `total += calculate; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `else` ` ` `{` ` ` `// Check if after the current element ` ` ` `// only 1 element exist which is a ` ` ` `// multiple of only 2 but not 4 ` ` ` `if` `(next_to_next[i, 1] == -1 && ` ` ` `next[next[i, 1], 0] % 4 != 0) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `calculate = next[i, 1] - i; ` ` ` `total += calculate; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `// Check if after the current element` ` ` `// an element exist which is multiple` ` ` `// of only 2 and not 4 and after that ` ` ` `// an element also exist which is ` ` ` `// multiple of 2 ` ` ` `else` `if` `(next_to_next[i, 1] != -1 &&` ` ` `next[next[i, 1], 0] % 4 != 0)` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `calculate = n - i; ` ` ` `total += calculate; ` ` ` `total -= next_to_next[i, 1] - ` ` ` `next[i, 1]; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `// All subarrays can be formed` ` ` `// by current element ` ` ` `else` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `calculate = n - i; ` ` ` `total = total + calculate; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `// Condition for an even number ` ` ` `else` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `// Check if next element does not ` ` ` `// exist which is multiple of 2 ` ` ` `if` `(next_to_next[i, 1] == -1)` ` ` `{` ` ` `//total = total;` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Check if next element exist ` ` ` `// which is multiple of 2 ` ` ` `else` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `calculate = n - i; ` ` ` `total += calculate; ` ` ` `total = total -` ` ` `next_to_next[i, 1] + i; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `// Print the output ` ` ` `Console.WriteLine(total); ` `} ` `static` `void` `Main()` `{` ` ` `// Array initialisation ` ` ` `int` `[] arr = {2, 5, 6}; ` ` ` `int` `size = arr.Length; ` ` ` `numberOfSubarrays(arr, size); ` `}` `}` `// This code is contributed by divyeshrabadiya07` |

## Javascript

`<script>` ` ` `// Javascript program to find count of` ` ` `// subarrays whose product can be` ` ` `// represented as the difference` ` ` `// between two different numbers` ` ` ` ` `// Function to print number of subarrays` ` ` `function` `numberOfSubarrays(arr, n)` ` ` `{` ` ` `let next = ` `new` `Array(n);` ` ` `let next_to_next = ` `new` `Array(n);` ` ` `let f = -1;` ` ` `let s = -1;` ` ` ` ` `for` `(let i = 0; i < n; i++)` ` ` `{` ` ` `next[i] = ` `new` `Array(2);` ` ` `next_to_next[i] = ` `new` `Array(2);` ` ` `}` ` ` `for` `(let i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--)` ` ` `{` ` ` `next[i][0] = arr[i];` ` ` `next_to_next[i][0] = arr[i];` ` ` `// Check if number is divisible by 2` ` ` `if` `(arr[i] % 2 == 0)` ` ` `{` ` ` `s = f;` ` ` `f = i;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Store the position` ` ` `// of the next element` ` ` `next[i][1] = f;` ` ` `// Store the position of` ` ` `// next to next element` ` ` `// which is multiple of 2` ` ` `next_to_next[i][1] = s;` ` ` `}` ` ` `let total = 0;` ` ` `for` `(let i = 0; i < n; i++)` ` ` `{` ` ` `let calculate;` ` ` `// Check if the element is divisible` ` ` `// is divisible by 4` ` ` `if` `(next[i][0] % 4 == 0)` ` ` `{` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Check if current element` ` ` `// is an odd number` ` ` `else` `if` `((next[i][0] & 1) == 1)` ` ` `{` ` ` `if` `(next[i][1] == -1)` ` ` `{` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `}` ` ` `else` ` ` `{` ` ` `// Check if after the current element` ` ` `// only 1 element exist which is a` ` ` `// multiple of only 2 but not 4` ` ` `if` `(next_to_next[i][1] == -1 &&` ` ` `next[next[i][1]][0] % 4 != 0)` ` ` `{` ` ` `calculate = next[i][1] - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Check if after the current element` ` ` `// an element exist which is multiple` ` ` `// of only 2 and not 4 and after that` ` ` `// an element also exist which is` ` ` `// multiple of 2` ` ` `else` `if` `(next_to_next[i][1] != -1 &&` ` ` `next[next[i][1]][0] % 4 != 0)` ` ` `{` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `total -= next_to_next[i][1] -` ` ` `next[i][1];` ` ` `}` ` ` `// All subarrays can be formed` ` ` `// by current element` ` ` `else` ` ` `{` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total = total + calculate;` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Condition for an even number` ` ` `else` ` ` `{` ` ` `// Check if next element does not` ` ` `// exist which is multiple of 2` ` ` `if` `(next_to_next[i][1] == -1)` ` ` `total = total;` ` ` `// Check if next element exist` ` ` `// which is multiple of 2` ` ` `else` ` ` `{` ` ` `calculate = n - i;` ` ` `total += calculate;` ` ` `total = total - next_to_next[i][1] + i;` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Print the output` ` ` `document.write(total);` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Array initialisation` ` ` `let arr = [ 2, 5, 6 ];` ` ` ` ` `let size = arr.length;` ` ` ` ` `numberOfSubarrays(arr, size);` ` ` `</script>` |

**Output:**

2

**Time complexity:** O(N)